Understanding Testosterone Therapy: A Comprehensive Guide to Treatment, Eligibility, and Expectations

December 14, 2023

Navigating TRT from A to Z. From Eligibility, to Treatment and Insurance Options. What You Need to Know.

1. What is testosterone therapy, and how does it work?

Testosterone therapy involves the administration of testosterone to increase levels of this hormone in the body. It’s a crucial hormone responsible for various functions in men, including muscle mass, bone density, fat distribution, red blood cell production, and sex drive. Doctors prescribe testosterone after conducting a thorough evaluation of a patient's symptoms, medical history, and blood tests measuring testosterone levels. The process typically involvesseveral steps:

Evaluation to Determine Eligibility for TRT:

1.     Symptom Assessment: The doctor will inquire about signs and symptoms associated with low T, such as decreased libido, fatigue, mood changes, and erectile dysfunction.

2.     Medical History Review: Understanding a patient's medical history is crucial. Conditions like diabetes, obesity, and other medical issues can contribute to low testosterone levels.

3.     Physical Examination: A physical exam might be conducted to identify signs like decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, or other physical manifestations of low testosterone.

Blood Tests to Check Testosterone Levels:

1.     Testosterone Levels: A blood test measures the amount of testosterone in the blood. Typically, low testosterone levels combined with symptoms warrant consideration for therapy.

2.     Additional Tests: Sometimes, additional blood tests may be required to rule out other conditions contributing to the symptoms or to check for potential contraindications to testosterone therapy.

Prescribing Testosterone:

1.     Treatment Plan: If low testosterone levels are confirmed and the patient's symptoms align with testosterone deficiency, the doctor may propose testosterone therapy as part of the treatment plan.

2.     Choosing the Form of Testosterone: Based on the patient's preferences, lifestyle, and the doctor's recommendation, a specific form of testosterone therapy (such as injections, gels, patches, or pellets) might be prescribed.

3.     Monitoring: Regular follow-ups and monitoring of the patient's response to therapy are essential. This includes periodic blood tests to assess testosterone levels and evaluate any side effects.

Why Testosterone is Prescribed:

1.     To Alleviate Symptoms: Testosterone therapy aims to alleviate symptoms associated with low testosterone, such as fatigue, decreased libido, and mood changes, to improve overall quality of life.

2.     Medical Necessity: Low testosterone levels can impact various bodily functions, including bone density, muscle mass, and red blood cell production. Therapy helps restore hormonal balance.

3.     Individualized Care: The decision to prescribe testosterone is based on individual needs and goals, ensuring personalized treatment for each patient.

A doctor prescribes testosterone therapy after a comprehensive assessment to address symptoms and improve a patient's overall health and well-being. It's crucial to consult a qualified healthcare professional to determine the suitability of testosterone therapy and to receive personalized guidance and monitoring throughout the treatment process.

2. Who is a suitable candidate fortestosterone therapy?

Men experiencing symptoms of low testosterone levels, such as decreased libido, fatigue, depression, and erectile dysfunction, might be suitable candidates for therapy. However, a thorough examination and blood tests by a qualified healthcare provider are essential to determineeligibility.

Suitable candidates for testosterone therapy typically include men who:

1.     Display Symptoms of Low Testosterone: Symptoms of Low T might include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, mood changes, and decreased bone density.

2.     Have Medically Confirmed Low Testosterone Levels: Blood tests indicating consistently low levels of testosterone support the need for therapy. However, symptoms and blood levels should align to consider treatment.

3.     Are in Good Health Otherwise: Candidates should generally be in good health without conditions that might contraindicate testosterone therapy, such as prostate cancer or severe heart conditions.

4.     Seek to Improve Quality of Life: Individuals experiencing negative impacts on their daily life due to low testosterone levels may benefit from therapy to improve their overall well-being.

5.     Have Discussed Risks and Benefits: Candidates who have had a thorough discussion with their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of testosterone therapy and have realistic expectations regarding its outcomes.

6.     Desire to Address Specific Symptoms: Those looking to address symptoms associated with low testosterone that significantly affect their quality of life, such as sexual dysfunction, low energy levels, or mood disturbances.

It's crucial to emphasize that each case is unique, and thedecision to undergo testosterone therapy should be made in consultation with a qualified healthcare provider. They can assess individual health factors, discuss potential risks, and tailor a treatment plan based on the specific needs and goals of the patient.

3. What are the signs or symptoms that mightindicate low testosterone levels?

Signs and symptoms of low testosterone levels in men canmanifest in various ways. These include:

1.     Decreased Libido: One of the most common signs is a noticeable decrease in sex drive or a diminished interest in sexual activity. Low sex drive in men is common when hormone levels are sub-optimal.

2.     Erectile Dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining erections might indicate low testosterone levels.

3.     Fatigue: Persistent feelings of tiredness, low energy levels, and a general lack of motivation can be indicative of low testosterone.

4.     Decreased Muscle Mass: Individuals might experience a reduction in muscle mass despite regular exercise or physical activity.

5.     Increased Body Fat: Low testosterone can lead to an increase in body fat, especially around the abdomen.

6.     Mood Changes: Changes in mood such as irritability, depression, or a general sense of unease might be associated with low testosterone levels.

7.     Decreased Bone Density: Low testosterone can impact bone health, potentially leading to osteoporosis or increased susceptibility to fractures.

8.     Reduced Hair Growth: Some men might notice a decrease in body or facial hair growth, along with thinning hair.

9.     Memory and Concentration Issues: Cognitive functions like memory, focus, and concentration might be affected in some cases.

It's important to note that experiencing one or more of thesesymptoms doesn't necessarily confirm low testosterone levels. Confirmatory blood tests conducted by a healthcare professional are essential to diagnose low testosterone accurately. If you're experiencing these symptoms and suspectlow testosterone might be a factor, discussing them with a healthcare provider is recommended for proper evaluation and guidance.

4. What are the different methods of administering testosterone therapy?

Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, catering to individual preferences, lifestyles, and medical needs. The methods include:

1. Injections: Different types of testosterone

  • Types: Testosterone injections are available in different formulations, such as testosterone cypionate, testosterone enanthate, and testosterone propionate.
  • Frequency: Injections are typically given every 1-2 weeks, though dosing schedules can vary based on the formulation and individual response.

2. Topical Gels and Creams:

  • Application: Gels and creams are applied daily to the skin, usually on the shoulders, upper arms, or abdomen.
  • Absorption: Testosterone is absorbed through the skin, entering the bloodstream to increase hormone levels.

3. Transdermal Patches:

  • Worn: These patches adhere to the skin and release testosterone gradually into the bloodstream.
  • Application: They are typically worn on the back, abdomen, thighs, or upper arms, and need to be replaced daily.

4. Buccal Tablets:

  • Placement: Buccal tablets are placed against the gumline, where testosterone is absorbed directly through the oral mucosa.
  • Administration: They are usually taken twice daily.

5. Subcutaneous Pellets:

  • Implantation: Testosterone pellets are implanted under the skin, usually in the buttocks, during a minor outpatient procedure.
  • Duration: These pellets slowly release testosterone over a period of several months.

6. Oral Tablets:

  • Administration: Testosterone tablets are taken orally.
  • Less Common: Oral testosterone is less commonly prescribed due to potential liver toxicity and fluctuations in hormone levels.

7. Nasal Gels:

  • Application: Nasal gels are applied to the nasal passages.
  • Absorption: They are absorbed through the nasal mucosa to increase testosterone levels.

Each method has its advantages and considerations in terms of convenience, efficacy, potential side effects, and individual preferences. The choice of administration method is often based on factors like patient comfort, lifestyle, adherence to treatment, and guidance from healthcare providers. It's crucial to consult a qualified healthcare professional to determine the most suitable method of testosterone therapy for individual needs.

5. Are there any potential risks or sideeffects associated with testosterone therapy?

Yes, like any medical treatment, testosterone therapy comes with potential risks and side effects. These can vary depending on the individual, the method of administration, dosage, and overall health. Some potential risks and side effects include:

1. Acne and Skin Reactions:

  • Testosterone therapy might lead to increased oil production, potentially causing acne or skin reactions at the site of application.

2. Increased Red Blood Cell Production:

  • Testosterone can stimulate the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, which might increase the risk of blood clots in some individuals by increasing hematocrit levels.

3. Fluid Retention:

  • Some people may experience fluid retention, resulting in swelling in the extremities.

4. Breast Enlargement or Tenderness:

  • Testosterone therapy might cause gynecomastia (enlargement of breast tissue) or breast tenderness.

5. Worsening of Sleep Apnea:

  • In individuals with sleep apnea, testosterone therapy might worsen this condition.

6. Potential Cardiovascular Risks:

  • Studies have suggested a possible link between testosterone therapy and an increased risk of cardiovascular issues such as heart attacks or strokes, especially in older men with existing heart conditions.

7. Infertility:

  • Testosterone therapy can decrease sperm production, leading to infertility. This effect is usually reversible after stopping therapy, but it's essential to discuss fertility concerns with a healthcare provider. There are medications that can help combat this, like hCG, Enclomiphene, Clomid and Gonadorelin.

8. Suppression of Natural Testosterone Production:

  • Long-term testosterone therapy can suppress the body's natural production of testosterone, leading to dependence on external testosterone sources.

9. Mood Swings and Behavioral Changes:

  • Some individuals might experience mood swings, increased aggression, or changes in behavior.

10. Prostate Health:

  • There's ongoing debate regarding the potential impact of testosterone therapy on prostate health. Some studies suggest a possible association between testosterone therapy and an increased risk of prostate issues, including enlargement however it will not cause cancer to develop .

It's crucial for individuals considering testosterone therapy to discuss these potential risks and side effects with a qualified healthcare provider. Regular monitoring and open communication with a healthcare professional can help mitigate risks and ensure the therapy's safety and effectiveness for each individual.

6. How long does it take to see results from testosterone replacement?

The timeline for noticing results from testosterone replacement therapy can vary significantly among individuals. Factors such as the method of administration, dosage, individual physiology, and the severity of testosterone deficiency can influence how quickly changes occur. However, here's a general guideline:

Short-Term Effects (Within Weeks to Months):

  1. Improved Energy Levels: Some individuals report increased energy and reduced fatigue within a few weeks of starting therapy.
  2. Mood Changes: Changes in mood, such as reduced irritability or improved sense of well-being, might be noticed relatively early.
  3. Sexual Function: Improvements in libido and erectile function might occur within a few weeks to a couple of months for some individuals.

Medium-Term Effects (Several Months):

  1. Body Composition: Changes in body composition, including increased muscle mass and reduced body fat, may become noticeable after a few months of consistent therapy.
  2. Cognitive Effects: Some individuals report improvements in cognitive functions like memory and concentration after a few months of treatment.
  3. Bone Density: Enhancements in bone density might begin to occur gradually over several months of therapy.

Long-Term Effects (Over Several Months to Years):

  1. Full Benefits: The full benefits of testosterone replacement therapy, especially in terms of muscle strength, bone health, and overall well-being, might take several months to a year to become fully evident.
  2. Individual Variation: It's important to note that individual responses vary, and some people may experience results sooner or later than others.

Consistency and Follow-Up:

Consistency with therapy and adherence to prescribed treatment plans are crucial for optimal results. Additionally, regular follow-ups with healthcare providers allow for monitoring, potential adjustments, and evaluation of progress.

While some improvements might be noticeable relatively quickly, significant changes in body composition, strength, and overall well-being typically become more evident over several months of consistent testosterone replacement therapy. It's essential for individuals undergoing treatment to maintain open communication with their healthcare provider to track progress and ensure the therapy's effectiveness.

7. Is testosterone therapy a lifelong commitment?

Testosterone therapy doesn't necessarily require a lifelong commitment for every individual. Whether it's a lifelong commitment depends on various factors:

Underlying Causes of Low T:

  • Primary vs. Secondary Hypogonadism: If the cause of low testosterone is due to a reversible condition (such as certain medications, stress, or obesity), addressing these factors might restore testosterone production without the need for lifelong therapy.
  • Age-Related Decline: In some cases, age-related declines in testosterone might necessitate ongoing therapy as the body's natural production decreases over time.

Treatment Goals and Response:

  • Individual Goals: The duration of therapy can depend on individual treatment goals. Some individuals might seek short-term treatment to alleviate specific symptoms, while others may require long-term management for chronic conditions.
  • Response to Therapy: Response to testosterone therapy varies among individuals. Some might experience sustained benefits and choose to continue therapy, while others might find relief after a certain period and opt to discontinue treatment.

Health Considerations:

  • Health Conditions: Certain health conditions might require ongoing testosterone therapy for optimal management. Individuals with conditions like hypogonadism or chronic illnesses affecting hormone production might require long-term therapy.
  • Regular Monitoring: Regardless of the duration, regular monitoring of hormone levels and overall health is essential to determine the need for ongoing therapy and to ensure its safety and effectiveness.

While some individuals might need testosterone therapy for a specific period to address symptoms or hormonal imbalances, others may require ongoing management due to chronic conditions or age-related declines. The decision regarding the duration of therapy should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account individual health needs, treatment goals, and the risks and benefits associated with long-term testosterone therapy. Regular follow-ups and monitoring are crucial to assess the need for continued treatment and to ensure optimal health outcomes.

8. Can testosterone therapy improve libido and sexual function?

Yes, testosterone therapy has the potential to improve libido and sexual function in men experiencing these issues due to low testosterone levels. Testosterone plays a significant role in regulating sexual desire, arousal, and overall sexual function. When testosterone levels are low, it can lead to a decline in libido and impact erectile function.

How Testosterone Therapy Can Help:

  1. Increased Libido: One of the primary effects of testosterone therapy is often an increase in libido or sex drive. Men experiencing low sexual desire due to low testosterone levels may notice an improvement in their interest in sexual activity with therapy.
  2. Improved Erectile Function: Testosterone therapy can also positively impact erectile function. It might help men achieve and maintain erections by enhancing blood flow to the penis and supporting the physiological mechanisms involved in achieving an erection.


  • Individual Responses Vary: It's important to note that individual responses to testosterone therapy can vary. While many men experience improvements in libido and sexual function, not everyone might respond in the same way.
  • Comprehensive Approach: Improvements in sexual function may also require addressing other factors contributing to sexual health, such as psychological factors, relationship dynamics, overall health, and any underlying medical conditions.

Consultation and Monitoring:

  • Healthcare Provider Guidance: Before starting testosterone therapy for the purpose of addressing sexual health concerns, it's crucial to consult a healthcare provider. They can assess if low testosterone is indeed the primary cause of sexual issues and recommend suitable treatment options.
  • Regular Monitoring: Monitoring hormone levels and overall health throughout the therapy is essential to assess progress, ensure safety, and adjust treatment if necessary.

While testosterone therapy can potentially improve libido and sexual function in men with low testosterone levels, it's important to approach sexual health holistically. A comprehensive assessment by a healthcare provider is crucial to determine the underlying causes of sexual issues and to explore appropriate treatments, which might include testosterone therapy along with other interventions to optimize sexual health.

9. Are there lifestyle changes or additional treatments that complement testosterone therapy?

Absolutely, lifestyle changes and additional treatments can complement testosterone therapy, enhancing its effectiveness and overall impact on health. Here are several complementary approaches:

1. Healthy Diet:

  • Balanced Nutrition: A diet rich in whole foods, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats can support overall health and hormonal balance.
  • Limiting Processed Foods: Reducing intake of processed foods, sugars, and unhealthy fats can positively impact hormone levels and overall well-being.

2. Regular Exercise:

  • Strength Training: Resistance training and weightlifting can help increase muscle mass and stimulate testosterone production.
  • Cardiovascular Exercise: Engaging in aerobic activities can improve cardiovascular health, which indirectly supports hormonal balance.

3. Stress Management:

  • Stress Reduction Techniques: Practicing stress-relief techniques such as meditation, yoga, deep breathing exercises, or mindfulness can help manage cortisol levels, which can impact testosterone.

4. Weight Management:

  • Maintaining Healthy Weight: Obesity or excess body fat can contribute to lower testosterone levels. Managing weight through diet and exercise can positively affect hormone balance.

5. Sleep Quality:

  • Adequate Sleep: Getting sufficient, quality sleep is crucial for hormone regulation and overall health. Aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night.

6. Addressing Underlying Health Conditions:

  • Treatment of Medical Conditions: Managing conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea can improve testosterone levels.

7. Psychological Health:

  • Counseling or Therapy: Addressing psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression can positively impact hormone levels and overall well-being.

8. Avoiding Excessive Alcohol and Substance Use:

  • Limiting Alcohol and Substance Use: Excessive alcohol consumption and substance abuse can negatively affect hormone levels and overall health.

9. Supplements or Medications:

  • Vitamin D and Zinc: Supplements like vitamin D and zinc might support healthy testosterone levels in some individuals with deficiencies.
  • Prescribed Medications: In some cases, medications might be prescribed to address specific underlying health issues affecting testosterone levels.

Incorporating these lifestyle changes and additional treatments alongside testosterone therapy can create a holistic approach to improving overall health and hormonal balance. It's essential to discuss these strategies with a healthcare provider to ensure they align with individual health needs and goals, enhancing the benefits of testosterone therapy and promoting optimal well-being.

10. Will insurance cover the costs of testosterone therapy?

Insurance coverage fortestosterone therapy can vary based on several factors, including:

1. Insurance Policy:

  • Type of Plan: Coverage can depend on the specific type of insurance plan (e.g., private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid) and the coverage options within that plan.
  • Policy Details: Some insurance plans might cover certain forms of testosterone therapy or specific medical conditions associated with low testosterone.

2. Medical Necessity:

  • Diagnosis: Insurance coverage might be influenced by the diagnosis of a medical condition (such as hypogonadism) that requires testosterone therapy as a medically necessary treatment.
  • Blood Test Results: Providing evidence of medically confirmed low testosterone levels through blood tests might support the medical necessity of therapy.

3. Prior Authorization:

  • Pre-approval Requirements: Some insurance plans might require prior authorization or approval from a healthcare provider before covering the costs of testosterone therapy.

4. Formulations and Administration:

  • Preferred Formulations: Insurance coverage might favor certain forms of testosterone therapy (such as injections) over others (like gels or patches) due to cost considerations or formulary preferences.

5. Deductibles and Co-payments:

  • Out-of-Pocket Costs: Even if covered, insurance plans might require deductibles, co-payments, or co-insurance, leading to out-of-pocket expenses for the individual.

6. Coverage Limitations:

  • Annual Limits: Some insurance plans might have annual limits or restrictions on the number of treatments or the duration of therapy covered for testosterone replacement.

Here is an excerpt from Blue Cross Blue Shields Policy on Testosterone Coverage

“Policy: Requests must be supported by submission of chart notes and patient specific documentation.

A.     Coverage of the requested drug is provided when all the following are met:

a. FDA approved age

b. Diagnosis of male hypogonadism

c. Documentation of at least TWO signs/symptoms of testosterone deficiency

d. Aveed or Testopel: Requires trial and failure, contraindication, or intolerance to either generic Depo®- testosterone or generic Delatestryl®

e. Testosterone replacement products are not to be used in combination

f. Exceptions to the coverage criteria will be made when necessary for female to male (FTM) transgender members.

g. Trial and failure, contraindication, OR intolerance to the preferred drugs as listed in BCBSM/BCN’s utilization management medical drug list and/or BCBSM/BCN’s prior authorization and step therapy document

B.     Quantity Limitations, Authorization Period and Renewal Criteria

a. Quantity Limits: Align with FDA recommended dosing i. Testopel: 6 pellets (450 mg) every 3 months

b. Authorization Period: One year at a time

c. Renewal criteria: Clinical documentation must be provided to confirm that current criteria are met and that the medication is providing clinical benefit

***Note: Coverage and approval duration may differ for Medicare Part B members based on any applicable criteria outlined in Local Coverage Determinations (LCD) or National Coverage Determinations (NCD) as determined by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). See the CMS website at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/. Determination of coverage of Part B drugs is based on medically accepted indications which have supported citations included or approved for inclusion determined by CMS approved compendia.

Clearly it’s difficult for many patients to qualify with so many prior elements needing to be met, as well as treatment being dictated by what the insurance provider requires instead of the physician’s knowledge of HRT and discretion. This is why out of pocket cash pay clinics are so successful and offer treatment based on patient’s needs, signs and symptoms, not what treatment plan the insurance provider will agree to pay for. It's essential to contact the insurance provider directly or consult with the healthcare provider's billing department to understand the specific details of coverage for testosterone therapy. This includes verifying coverage, understanding any requirements for pre-authorization, and clarifying potential out-of-pocket costs associated with the treatment. Additionally, healthcare providers can often assist in navigating insurance coverage and exploring options for financial assistance if needed.

Visit www.NovaGenix.org for more information on testosterone therapy or call/text us AT (561) 277-8260


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Blood Work Request Form

This subsequent lab panel is necessary for males undergoing Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) through NovaGenix Health and Wellness. It allows physicians to assess the patient's response to prescribed medications, covering sex hormone levels, thyroid function, adrenal health, hematocrit, and liver and kidney function. The panel includes tests such as:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Testosterone (Free and Total)
  • Estradiol Sensitive
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
  • Prostate Specific Antigen

Each test serves a specific purpose in monitoring overall health and treatment effectiveness. When required, Dr Mackey may require LH and FSH (Luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) SHBG (Sex hormone binding globulin) or any other tests which may be important for your health and optimizing your hormones.

The Comprehensive Hormone and Wellness Panel for Women offers a foundational assessment of sex hormones, thyroid function, adrenal health, metabolic activity, and overall well-being. This panel serves as a diagnostic tool for identifying testosterone and estrogen deficiencies, assessing health risks, and detecting potential thyroid issues before considering hormone replacement therapy. Additionally, it includes insights into hematocrit (red blood cell volume), as well as liver and kidney function. The panel encompasses various tests such as:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Complete Metabolic Panel
  • Testosterone (free and total)
  • Estradiol
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Progesterone

When indicated, Dr. Mackey may require additional tests such as Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and IGF-1 and Cortisol.

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